Welcome To Myschoollibrary! In our Basic Science And Technology lesson today, we will be looking at ” changes in matter”. Do have a great moment studying with us.

Lesson Note

Subject: Basic Science And Technology

Class: JS2

Topic: Changes In Matter

Learning Objectives: By the end of the Lesson, The learners should be able to:.

  1. Define the term matter;
  2. State and explain the types of changes in matter;
  3. Give examples of each type of change.



The term “matter” can be defined as anything that has mass and can occupy space. Matter generally exists in three states: solid, liquid, or gas.

Matter can be living or non-living. Matter can also undergo changes when exposed to heat, air, light, water or pressure. Matter can also undergo natural or artificial changes. The changes which matter undergoes can be classified as either temporary or permanent changes or physical and chemical changes. In this lesson, you will learn the different types of changes in matter, their characteristics, examples and causes.


Matter can change when exposed to light, heat, air, water and pressure. When a substance is heated, the substance could change completely to another substance. For example, when a piece of wood is burnt, it changes completely to form charcoal or ash. Similarly, when a green plant is exposed to light, some reactions occur in the leaves by the process of photosynthesis in which water and carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll react to form sugar and oxygen. These changes above are changes which cannot be reverted. They are called permanent changes. Other examples of permanent changes include:

  • Yellowing of plant leaves
  • Decaying of plant and animal body
  • Growth in plant and animal body
  • Iron rust
  • Burning of substances, etc.

On the other hand, there are changes which occur in some substances, but the original substances can be recovered. These are referred to as temporary changes. Temporary changes are changes that are reversible, that is they can be reverted. Example include:

  • Water changes into ice.
  • Water and oil are mixed.
  • Skin or hair is bleached.
  • Iron rod is heated in flame.
  • A substance is dissolved in water

This chart below illustrates physical (temporary) change and chemical (permanent) change


Changes in matter do not just occur. They are usually caused by changes in the condition around the matter. For instance, matter will remain in its liquid state if there is no change in the temperature of its environment. Therefore, we can say that the major cause of changes in the states of matter is temperature. There are other conditions which lead to changes in matter. They include light, air, moisture and pressure.

Done studying? See all lessons in Basic Science/ Technology

Take a quick test for this lesson

1. Which of these statements is not correct about matter?
Matter is always a solid material
Matter can undergo temporary or permanent changes
Heat can affect matter
Matter can exist in three states
2. List the changes that may occur in matter and give five examples of each of the changes
3. Differentiate between temporary and permanent change.
4. State factors that bring about temporary and permanent changes.

Questions answered correctly? Kudos!!

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